ARTICLES IN REFEREED JOURNALS                                                        

  • [32] 'A Truthmaker Theory for Modals'. Invited contribution, Philosophical Issues 'Philosophy of Logic and Inferential Reasoning', edited by C.F. Juhl and J. Schechter.
  • [31] 'Number Words as Number Names'.  Special issue on cardinals edited by C. Roberts and S. Shapiro,Linguistics and Philosophy 40(4), 2017, 331-345.
    • Abstract: This paper re-evaluates linguistic evidence for the apparent non-referential status of number words in argument position. 
  • [30] 'Partial Content and Expressions of Part and Whole. Discussion of Stephen Yablo: Aboutness'. Invited contribution to a book symposium on S. Yablo Aboutness. Philosophical Studies 174(3), 2017, pp. 797-808.
    • Abstract: This paper discusses the linguistic reflection of partial content, arguing that the notion of partial content applies to a great range of attitudinal and modal objects, rather than propositions or sentences.
  • [29] 'Attitude Reports, Cognitive Products, and Attitudinal Objects: A Response to G. Felappi On Product-Based Accounts of Attitudes'. Thought 6.1., 2017, pp. 3–12, online.
    • Abstract: This paper argues that Felappi's recent critique of my view of attitude reports is entirely mistaken.
  • [28] ‘States vs Tropes. Commentary on Marcyn Morzicki: ‘Degrees as Kinds of States’’. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 33.3., special issue edited by B. Gehrke and E. Castroviejo Miró, 2015, pp. 829-841.
    • Abstract: This paper compares states and tropes as entities involved in the semantics of gradable adjectives.
  • [27] 'Propositions, Attitudinal Objects, and the Distinction between Actions and Products'.  Canadian Journal of Philosophy 43.5-6, special issue 'Propositions and their Grasp or Understanding', edited by D. Hunter and G. Rattan, 2014, pp. 679-701.
    • Abstract: This paper presents the action-product distinction of Twardowski and argues for a novel semantics of attitude reports on which that-clauses act as predicates of attitudinal objects, a category of objects that includes cognitve products and mental states.
  • [26] 'The Semantics of Existence'. Linguistics and Philosophy 36.1., 2013, pp. 31-63.
    • Abstract: This paper examines the expression of existence in natural language, in particular in the form of the existence predicates exist and occur.
  • [25] 'Identificational Sentences'. Natural Language Semantics 21.1., 2013, pp. 43-77.
    • Abstract: This paper gives a novel semantics identificational sentences such as This is Mary as involving the identification of the berarer of a trope (particularized property).
  • [24] 'Tropes, Bare Demonstratives, and Apparent Statements of Identity'. Noûs 47.2., 2013, pp. 346-370.
    • Abstract: This paper argues that statements like This is the same lump of clay but not the same statue as that are not statements of relative identity, but identificational sentences, involving the identification of the bearer of two distinct tropes (particularized properties).
  • [23] 'Reference to Numbers in Natural Language'.  Philosophical Studies 162.3, 2013, pp. 499-536
    • Abstract: This paper argues that natural language does not involve reference to numbers with expressions like the number of planets and eight, but only with reifying terms of the sort the number eight.
  • [22] 'Two Kinds of First-Person-Oriented Content'.  Synthese 184.2, special issue edited by Philippe de Brabanter and Mikhail Kissine, 2012, pp. 157-177.
    • Abstract: This paper argues for two distinct sorts of first-person oriented content: one involving ordinary first person pronouns, the other generic one, which, it is argued, is also implicitly present in statements triggering faultless disagreement.
  • [21] 'Generalizing Detached Self-Reference and the Semantics of Generic 'One''. Mind and Language 25(4), 2010, pp. 440-473.
    • Abstract: This paper argues that generic one involves generic simulation, conveying generalized detached self-reference, or the objective self, to use Thomas Nagel's term.
  • [20] 'Relative Truth and the First Person'. Philosophical Studies 150(2), 2010, pp. 187-220.
    • Abstract: This paper argues that intuitions of faultless disagreement are due to the implicit presence of generic one, which conveys first-person-oriented based genericity, rather than the relativization of truth to a judge parameter.
  • [19] 'Degree Structure as Trope Structure: A Trope-Based Analysis of Positive and Comparative Adjectives'. Linguistics and Philosophy 32(1), 2009, pp. 51-94.
    • Abstract: This paper gives an account of adjectives in the positive and the comparative based on tropes (particularized properties). By construing degrees as tropes, the paper reconstructs established insights of adjective semantics in tersm of tropes, but it also provides specific arguments for the trope-based account.
  • [18] 'Intensional Verbs and their Intentional Objects'. Natural Language Semantics 16(3), 2008, pp. 239-270.
    • Abstract: This paper deals with quantifiers like something when occurring as complements of intensional transitive verbs. It argues that challenges that arise for the nominaliaation theory of such quantifier occurrences can be overcome by extending the ontology somewhat, making use of variable satisfiers.
  • [17] 'Events, Tropes and Truthmaking'. Philosophical Studies 134, 2007, pp. 363-403.
    • Abstract: This paper explores an event semantics based on truthmaking rather than implicit Davidsonian arguments.
  • [16] 'Generic One, Arbitrary PRO, and the First Person'. Natural Language Semantics 14, 2006, pp. 257-281.
    • Abstract: This paper develops a semantics of generic one and arbitrary PRO based on the notion of (generic) simulation.
  • [15] 'Unbound Anaphoric Pronouns: E-Type, Dynamic and Structured Propositions Approaches'. Synthese 153, 2006, pp. 199-260.
    • Abstract: This paper critically discusses situation-based E-type approaches and dynamic approaches to unbound anaphoric pronouns. It argues for a new account based on structured propositions and background attitudes.
  • [14] 'Quantifier Domains and Presuppositions'. Synthese 149, 2005, pp. 179-224.
    • Abstract: This paper argues for a new notion of domain presupposition and gives a general account of presuppositions in terms of pre-identification, relating to the local discourse context or else the actual index of evaluation.
  • [13] 'Part Structures in Situations: The Semantics of Individual and Whole'. Linguistics and Philosophy 28(5), 2005, pp. 599-641.
    • Abstract: This paper outlines a theory of situated part structures based on the notion of an integrated whole. It gives a semantic analysis of the adjectives individual and whole and traces two different readings of whole to a part structure being conceived either as Aristotelain (including form) or not (not including form).
  • [12] 'The Semantics of Together'. Natural Language Semantics 12, 2004, pp. 289-318.
    • Abstract: This paper argues that adnominal together does not act as a antidtistributive marker, but instead conveys cimulative measurement.
  • [11] 'Two Kinds of Universals and Two Kinds of Collections'. Linguistics and Philosophy 27(6)., 2004, pp. 739-776.
    • Abstract: This papers argues that natural language allows for reference to two sorts of universals, roughly Aristotelian universals (wisdom, human beings) and Platonic universals (the property of being wise, the kind human being). It argues that the distinction between the semantic values of plural NPs (the students) and collective NPs (the group of students) is analogous.
  • [10] 'Nonreferential Complements, Derived Objects, and Nominalizations'Journal of Semantics 13, 2004,  pp.1-43.
    • Abstract: This paper gives a semantic account of adjective nominalizations and nominalizations of attitude verbs and argues that quantifiers like something when taking the position of complements of the copula or attitude verb have a nominalizing function, involving the same sorts of objects as nominalizations of adjectives or attitude verbs.
  • [9] 'Properties and Kinds of Tropes: New Linguistic Facts and Old Philosophical Insights'.  Mind 123(1), 2004, pp. 1-41.
    • Abstract: This papers argues that natural language reflects a distinction between kind of tropes (wisdom) and properties (the property of being wise). It relates the former to Aristotle and medieval trope nominalists (Ockham).
  • [8] 'Propositional Attitudes without Propositions'. Synthese 135, 2003, pp. 70-118.
    • Abstract: This paper argues that clausal complements of attitude verbs are not terms standing for propositions acting as arguments of the verb. It provides a neo-Russellian analysis of attitude reports according to which attitude vers are multigrade predicates and that-clauses stand for ordered pluralities of propositional constituents filling in the multigrade argument position of attitude verbs.
  • [7] 'Nominalizing Quantifiers'. Journal of Philosophical Logic 32(5), 2003, pp. 445-481.
    • Abstract: This paper argues that quantifiers like something, when taking the position of non-nominal expressions, are nominalizing quantifiers introducing a new domain of objects rather than acting as substitutional quantifiers or inferential devices.
  • [6] 'Part Structures, Integrity and the Mass-Count Distinction'. Synthese 116, 1998, pp. 75-111.
    • Abstract: This paper presents a theory of part structure based on the notion of an integrated whole and argues that the notion of an integrated whole is at the heart of the mass-count distinction, including that between singular count and mass part (a part of of vs part of)
  • [5] 'Intensional Verbs and Quantifiers'. Natural Language Semantics 5(1), 1997, pp. 1-52.
    • Abstract: This paper gives an analysis of intensional transitive verbs with quantificational complements.
  • [4] 'A New Notion of Part Structure for Natural Language'. Data and Knowledge Engineering 20(3), 1996, pp. 323-345.
    • Abstract: This paper outlines a notion of part structure based on the notion of an integrated whole.
  • [3] 'Exception Sentences and Polyadic Quantification'. Linguistics and Philosophy 18, 1995, pp. 223-280.
    • Abstract: This paper develops a semantics of exception sentences and shows that exception sentences may display polyadic quantifcation.
  • [2] 'Reciprocals and Same/Different. Towards a Semantic Analysis'. Linguistics and Philosophy 15(4), 1992, pp. 411-462.
    • Abstract: This paper gives an analysis of reciprocals and same/different in terms of a bipartite  propostions, one part being an ordinary plural proposition, another consisting of an association of entities with parts of a plurality.
  • [1] 'Measure Adverbials'. Linguistics and Philosophy 14(6), 1991, pp. 629-660.
    • Abstract: This paper gives an analysis of adverbials like for two hours and throughout the country in tems of quantification over parts of a location, rather than the selection of a type of event (atelic events as opposed to telic events).


  • [22] TBA. Invited contribution, M. Szatkowski (ed.): Quo Vadis Metaphysics, deGruyter.
  • [21] 'Natural Language Ontology'. Invited entry for the online Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • [20] 'Abstract Objects and the Ontological Core-Periphery Distinction in Language'. Invited contribution, Falguera, J.L. / C. Martínez (eds.): Abstract Objects. For and Against. Synthese Library, Dordrecht, under contract.
  • [19] 'Attitudinal Objects and Propositions'. Invited contribution, C. Tillman (ed.): Routledge Handbook of Propositions. Routledge, New York.
  • [18] 'A Truthmaker Semantics for Modals and Attitude Reports'. Invited contribution for A. Egan / P. van Elswyck / D. Kinderman (eds.): Unstructured Content. Oxford UP, under contract.
  • [17] 'Natural Language and its Ontology'. To appear in A. Goldman / B. McLaughlin (eds): Metaphysics and Cognitive Science, Oxford UP, 2018.
    • Abstract: This paper argues that natural langauge involves its own ontology, which may be different from the ontology a philosophy may be willing to accept or even a non-philosopher when thinking about what there is -- as well from the ontology of what there really is.
  • [16] 'Natural Language Ontology'. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Oxford UP, New York, April version
    • Abstract: This paper lays out natural language ontology as an emerging discipline, distinguishing it (as part of descriptive metaphysics) from foundational metaphysics
  • [15] 'A Plural Reference Interpretation of Three-Dimensional Syntactic Trees'. In C. van Urk / H. Kotek / C. Halpert (eds.): A Pesky Set. Papers for David Pesetsky'. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics (MITWPL) 80, MIT Cambridge (Mass.), 2017.
    • Abstract: This paper sketches a novel interpretation of three-dimensional syntactic trees in terms of plural reference.
  • [14] 'Levels of Linguistic Acts and the Semantics of Saying and Quoting'. To appear in S. L. Tsohatzidis (ed.): Interpreting Austin: Critical Essays. Cambridge UP, November 2017.
    • Abstract: This papers argues that Austin's notion of a locutionary act is extremely well-reflected in the semantics of natural language. It develops a new semantics of verbs saying (say, think, write) as well as of direct quotation within the overall view that sentences act semantically as predicates of attitudinal and modal objects.
  • [13] ‘On the Ontology of Cases’. To appear in 2017.
    • Abstract: This paper sketches a semantic analysis of constructions with the noun case and argues that it involves truthmaking.
  • [12] 'Introduction'. With Mark Textor.  In F. Moltmann / M. Textor (eds.): Act-Based Conceptions of Propositional Content. Contemporary and Historical Perspectives. Oxford UP, Oxford, 2017.
  • [11] 'Cognitive Products and the Semantics of Attitude Verbs and Deontic Modals'. In F. Moltmann / M. Textor (eds.): Act-Based Conceptions of Propositional Content. Contemporary and Historical Perspectives. Oxford University Press, New York, 2017, pp. 254-290.
    • Abstract: This paper outlines a novel semantics of attitude reports based on attitudinal objects rather than propositions. It also outlines a novel semantics of (deontic) modal sentences based on modal objects rather than quantification over possible worlds.
  • [10] ‘Nominalization: The Case of Nominalizations of Modal Predicates’. To appear in The Blackwell Companion to Semantics (SemCom) edited by L. Matthewson, C. Meier, H. Rullmann, T. E.  Zimmermann, Wiley, New York.
    • Abstract: This paper discusses the semantics of different sorts of nominalizations focussing on the underexplored topic of nominalizations of modal predicates.
  • [9] 'Nominals and Event Structure'. To appear in R. Truswell (ed.): Oxford Handbook of Event Structure. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    • Abstract: This paper compares Davidson's event semantics to one based on truthmaking and argues that both are needed for a full account of the semantics adverbials..
  • [8] 'Intensional Relative Clauses and the Semantics of Variable Objects'. To appear in M. Krifka / M. Schenner (eds.): Reconstruction Effects in Relative Clauses. Studia Grammatika, Akademie Verlag Berlin.
    • Abstract: This paper analyses terms like the book John needs to write as terms standing for variable objects, arguing against alternative accounts such as that of Grosu and Krifka.
  • [7] 'Variable Objects and Truthmaking'. To appear in M. Dumitru (ed.): Metaphysics, Meaning, and Modality. Themes from Kit Fine. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Comments by Kit Fine . Reponse to the comments of Fine by F. Moltmann
    • Abstract: This paper argues that terms like the number of people that can fit into the bus or the book John needs to write stand for variable objects, objects whose definition involves the notion of truthmaking.
  • [6] 'The Number of Planets, a Number-Referring Term?'. In P. Ebert / M. Rossberg (eds.): Abstractionism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2016, pp. 109-133.
    • Abstract: This paper argues that the number of planets is not a number-referring term, but instead a term referring to a number trope, the manifestation of a number property in a plurality of objects.
  • [5] 'Plural Reference and Reference to a Plurality. Linguistic Facts and Semantic Analyses'. In M. Carrara / A. Arapinis / F. Moltmann (eds.): Unity and Plurality. Logic, Philosophy, and Semantics. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2016, pp. 93-120.
    • Abstract: There are two approaches to the semantics of plurals: reference to a plurality (sums, sets) and plural reference. The paper argues in favor of plural reference, mainly based on linguistic data.
  • [4] 'Quantification with Intentional and with Intensional Verbs'. In A. Torza (ed.): Quantifiers, Quantifiers, Quantifiers. Springer: Synthese Library, Dordrecht, 2015, pp. 141-168.
    • Abstract: This paper argues that the ontology of natural language involves intentional (nonexistent) objects, but only in contexts involving quasi-referential acts (acts of unsuccessful or pretended reference). Intentional objects are distinguished from fictional objects and construed in terms of coordinated quasi-referential acts.
  • [3] 'Truth Predicates' in Natural Language'. In D. Achourioti / H. Galinon / J. Martinez (eds): Unifying the Philosophy of Truth. Springer: Synthese Library, Dordrecht, 2015, pp. 57-83.
    • Abstract: This paper distinguishes between two truth-related predicates. True is a Type 1 truth predicate, is the case a type 2 truth predicate. Type 1 truth predicates involve the ascription of a property to an attitudinal object (such as a claim or judgment), type 2 truthpredicates convey truthmaking instead.
  • [2] 'On the Distinction Between Abstract States, Concrete States, and Tropes'. In A. Mari / C. Beyssade / Del Prete, F. (eds): Genericity. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013, pp. 292-311.
    • Abstract: This paper discusses the distinction between tropes and states in the context of natural language. It distinguishes between concrete and abstract states, and gives an account of abstract states in terms of Fregean abstraction.
  • [1] 'Resumptive Quantifiers in Exception Sentences'. Makoto Kanazawa et al. (eds.): Quantifiers, Deduction, and Context, CSLI lecture Notes. Stanford, 1994 (also appeared in ITLI Prepublication Series, LP-93-11, University of Amsterdam, 1993).
    • Abstract: This paper semantically analyses exception sentences and the polyadic quantifiers they may involve.





Coordination and Comparatives, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1992, thesis supervisor: N. A. Chomsky, available also here.


Syllabification and Lexical Phonology in German

Scrambling German and the Specificity / Definiteness Effect


OUP BLOG ENTRIES (introducing my books to a wider readership)

'What sorts of things are the things we believe, hope or predict?' (August 2017).

'Unity without objecthood, in art and in natural language'. (July 2017)

'Abstract objects: two ways of introducing them, in the core and the periphery of language' (June 2017)

'The one, the many and the neither one nor many: On Hokusai's woodblockprints' (November 2016)


Natural Language and Its Ontology

Truth Predicates, Truth Bearers, and their Variants



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